Self-Identity and Human Happiness (American University

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Thus we need courage in order to both curb excessive fear and modify unreasonable daring (ST IIaIIae 123.3). Therefore, citizens should have the right to choose from among all of the available options. The openness of Dasein's temporal futurity is an ineradicable condition of moral engagement. The word of the Lord identifies covetousness with idolatry, and hate with murder. A lawyer may be less certain that justice will be done, but his professional confidentialty is based on what is needed to protect the innocent, i.e. ensure the best defense for innocent suspects.

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Ethics: Selections from Classical and Contemporary Writers

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Only if we decide to make this rule our own, our personal guideline, can it be meaningful. Reprinted by permission of the Estate of Ayn Rand. Mill’s general position seem to be that one should do what will produce the most happiness, pleasure and with the absence of pain. Freely browse and use OCW materials at your own pace. There is no denying the greatness of Plato's greatest scholar, and many believe Aristotle surpassed his influential mentor in the debate of the human soul. ...

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Oppression and Responsibility: A Wittgensteinian Approach to

Peg O'Connor

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Doing the right thing is often difficult and, next to empathy, religious belief is surely the other reason many folks have the moral courage to do what they need to do. He suggests that if pleasure is best understood in attitudinal terms (as per Parfit's hedonic likings ) then this undermines Normative Stance Independence, the view that "normative facts are not made true by anyone’s conative or cognitive stance" or "by virtue of their ratification from within any given actual or hypothetical perspective."

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Technology, Transgenics and a Practical Moral Code (The

Dennis R. Cooley

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He exists; He has a character; and not all things are the same to Him. The moral is the chosen, not the forced; the understood, not the obeyed. The subjective relativist might simply find it personally offensive and repugnant, neither worrying nor caring what the objective order of reality requires, insisting that life in a society free of slavery is merely preferred by those who share that preference. Continuing from the above remark, he tells us that happiness must be included as a possible object of the good will: “That virtue (as the worthiness to be happy) is the supreme condition of whatever appears to us to be desirable and thus of all our pursuits of happiness and, consequently, that it is the supreme good have been proved in the Analytic.

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Jacques Derrida's Aporetic Ethics

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In the following section, I turn away from the issue of the good and back towards justice conceived as a fallback position, or in Aristotle’s language, a “second best”. (13) The tension between the moral good and the external political good of order, necessary but not sufficient for the well being of society, once again comes to the surface as an issue in modem political thought. But all of them involve other matters as well. Personal ethics is a category of philosophy that determines what an individual believes about morality and right and wrong.

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Ethical Dilemmas and Nursing Practice

Anne J. Davis

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Ethics do exist, and we can use language to describe them (although the view expressed may be mistaken—violence may be acceptable, and the banana may be purple). If, for example, we decided that certain mentally or physically handicapped people should be excluded, that would open the doors for fanatical leaders to claim that their opposition is insane or in some other way undeserving of human rights. For example, the word "ethic" comes from Old French (etique), Late Latin (ethica), and Greek (ethos) and referred to customs or moral philosophies. "Morals" comes from Late Latin's moralis, which referred to appropriate behavior and manners in society.

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Animal Minds and Human Morals

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An individual may adopt for himself a very demanding moral guide that he thinks may be too difficult for most others to follow. Late ecclesiastical writers followed in his footsteps. This is the area of faith and morals which we usually designate as "loosed in heaven" (Matthew 16:19). For a large society, a society where you can’t know everyone, to work ethics must come before morality, or ethics and morality must have a great deal of overlaps.

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The Philosophy Of Faith And The Fourth Gospel

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But to tire in that struggle would mean the ruin of society. (Albert Einstein, 1954) Any intelligent fool can make things bigger, more complex, and more violent. Exit polls following the last Presidential election illustrated the dichotomy between belief and application which currently exists within the Christian community: 45 percent of those who labeled themselves as “evangelicals” voted for “economic” issues above “moral” issues.

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Targum: Or, Metrical Translations From Thirty Languages And

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Primates and Philosophers tackles this question by exploring the biological foundations of one of humanity's most valued traits: morality. It begins with a heroic story of the Swedish official who helped many Jewish people escape the Nazi death camps and for a moment, it seems as though this chapter will deal our innate ability and desire to help our fellow human beings. Accepting a ticket, however, if far different from obeying the law.

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Understanding Ethics and Responsibilities in a Globalizing

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Equating morality with the individual and ethics with society makes it impossible to see that some social arrangements are immoral and that groups as a whole can be morally wrong. This is called Simple Subjectivism, but it is not a perfect theory. So unless you want to go down the philosophical road of Determinism, I suggest we all concede that ethical knowledge is innate (whether biological or God-given if you prefer). While it is evident that values and principles vary worldwide, scholars point to ethical values that are shared across cultures, such as honesty, integrity, fairness, respect, responsibility, empathy, compassion, and courage.

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